This tutorial sequence analyzes the formation of modern European nations, empires, and societies from the late 18th to the last quarter of the 20th century. Students use primary and secondary sources to explore the social and political consequences of the French Revolution and industrialization, the dynamics of empire, the origins and consequences of the two world wars, and postwar European politics and culture.


Jennifer Tucker is a historian who studies the interrelations of art and science, photography, and mass visual culture, with a specialization in 19th to mid-20th century British, U.S., and trans-Pacific history. The common threads in her diverse research fields are the dynamics of visual media in modern history, the nature of evidence, public perceptions and practices of history, and the interrelationships of science, technology, and the law.


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